Motion control systems are any system that control one or more of the following of a machine: its position, velocity, force, and/or pressure. They generally consist of the follow components:
There are two different types of motion control systems: open loop and closed loop systems. The basic difference between the two is that open loop systems do not use feedback; closed systems do use feedback.
As the brains of motion control systems, motion controllers calculate and generate the commands that guide the trajectory and velocity of the machine. They output these commands to the rest of the system and, if they receive feedback, adjust their commands to meet the necessary requirements of the system. Motion controllers use multiple algorithms (interpolators, control loops, step generators) to calculate the precise movements of the machine based on each segment or set point.
Drives receive commands from motion controllers in the form of low voltage signals. They use these signals to convey to the rest of the motion control system the amount of high-power current and voltage needed. There are many different types of drives that can be used:
Motors power the motion control system by converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. There are many different types of motors:
Only used in closed loop systems, feedback sensors provide feedback that motion controllers use to make necessary adjustments to the system, ensuring that the proper commands are given at all times. The most popular feedback device is an encoder (linear or rotary), which is an electromagnetic device that provides information on position, velocity and direction. There are also absolute encoders, which directly track positions using many unique values (serial, voltage, binary count, etc.).
Motion Ai has the answers to your motion control questions. If you are unsure which products are necessary for application, we can help you determine what you need. Contact us today to start designing your motion control solution.